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for excellence in Civil Services' General Studies

Swachh Bharat Mission


On September 24, 2014 Union Cabinet chaired by PM Modi gave its approval for restructuring of the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) into Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin)

The goal now is to achieve Swachh Bharat by 2019, as a fitting tribute to the 150th Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, by improving the levels of cleanliness in rural areas and making Gram Panchayats Open Defecation Free (ODF).

For this, the Swachh Bharat Mission will be launched with a new thrust to the sanitation programme, by removing bottlenecks that are hindering progress currently, and focusing on critical issues affecting outcomes.

Swachh Bharat is proposed to be achieved through:-

a) coverage of all rural households with IHHLs, cluster toilets, community toilets (including through PPP mode), construction of school and anganwadi toilets and SLWM activities in all Gram Panchayats;

b) creation of enhanced demand, convergent action through various agencies and stakeholders with triggering through enhanced IEC, Inter Personal Communication (IPC);

c) Strengthening of implementation and delivery mechanisms;

d) Monitoring Outputs (construction) and Outcomes (use) at the Gram Panchayat and household levels leading to Swachh Bharat.

Funding for these new initiatives will be through the following:

� Budgetary allocations;

� Contributions to the Swachh Bharat Kosh;

� Through commitments under Corporate Social responsibility (CSR)

� Funding assistance from multilateral sources



The Cabinet has approved revision in the components of the programme as follows :-

i. NBA will be restructured into the Swachh Bharat Mission with two sub-Missions - Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) and Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban). Budgetary provisions for the two sub-Missions will be provided separately in the demand for Grant of the Ministries of Drinking Water and Sanitation (for Gramin) and Ministry of Urban Development (for Urban). Necessary changes will be made from the RE Budget for 2014-15 onwards. The Mission will be kick-started on 2nd October 2014. If necessary, funds may be provided by re-appropriation or from the Contingency Fund.

ii. Enhance the Unit cost of the Individual Household Latrine (IHHL) from Rs. 10,000 to Rs. 12,000 so as to provide for water availability, including for storing, hand-washing and cleaning of toilets.

iii. Central share for IHHLs to be Rs. 9,000 (75 percent) from Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin). The State share to be Rs. 3,000 (25 percent). For North Eastern States, Jammu and Kashmir and Special category States, the Central share will be 10,800 and the State share Rs. 1,200 (90 percent:10 percent). Additional contributions from other sources will be permitted.

iv. Provision to be included in the Indira Awas Yojana Programme for provision of functional toilets. Till such provision is made, existing arrangement of funding will be continued from the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin).

v. Provision for Information, Education and Communication (IEC) will be at 8 percent of total project cost, with 3 percent to be utilised at the Central level and 5 percent at State level.

vi. Provision for Administrative Cost will be 2 percent of the project cost. Sharing pattern will be 75:25 between Centre and State.

vii. Discontinue the part funding from MGNREGA for the payment of incentives for the construction of IHHLs and pay the entire amount of Government of India share from the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin).

viii. All other components of the NBA that is Solid Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) and Community Sanitary Complexes (CSCs) will be retained. SLWM funding will be at 75:25 sharing pattern. For CSCs it will be 60:30:10 (Centre: State: Community). CSCs will be constructed only when the Gram Panchayat takes the responsibility of ownership and a sustainable operation and maintenance system is assured. CSCs will include public toilets at markets/bus stands/ peri-urban areas/census towns etc., wherever ownership and operation and maintenance is assured. CSCs/public toilets will also be considered under Public Private Partnership (PPP)/VGF mode.

ix. Transfer of the responsibility of construction of all School toilets to the Department of School Education and Literacy and of Anganwadi toilets to the Ministry of Women and Child Development.

x. The strategy of implementation of the Sanitation Programme will focus on behaviour change, triggering of the population with regard to toilet construction, and their use. Triggering of communities for behaviour change and usage of toilets shall be given top priority to ensure increased demand, which will lead to use of assets created. Effective use of technology and media shall be done to communicate the message of the benefits of safe sanitation and hygiene.

xi. Monitoring mechanism will be strengthened. Outputs (construction) and outcomes (usage) will be monitored. There should be comprehensive re-appraisal of the programme at end of the 12th Plan.

xii. States shall prepare an implementation strategy (Annual Implementation Plan) in consultation with the Mission. States performing as per their Plans will be incentivized. States achieving their targets prior to scheduled dates shall be further incentivized.

xiii. A menu of accredited technology options for toilets and SLWM projects shall be made available to the States by the Swachh Bharat Mission. The Mission will provide a list of minimal acceptable technologies for which assistance under this programme will be available. However, use of any superior technology will be permitted at additional cost to be borne by the beneficiary.


Efforts of the State Governments for promoting rural sanitation have been supplemented by the Central Government, till 1999 under the centrally sponsored Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP), from 1999 to 2012 under the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) and thereafter under the NBA.

However, the interventions so far, have as per Census 2011 resulted in 32.70 percent of rural households having access to toilets in rural areas, while as per the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) 2013 estimates 40.6 percent of rural households have such access.

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